Causes, Morbidity, and Mortality of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Among Hospitalized Patients


  • Naseeb-ur -Rehman Associate Professor, Medicine Bannu Medical College, Bannu, KPK
  • Salman khan Associate Professor, DHQ Teaching GMC, DIKHAN, KPK
  • Muhammad Zubair Assistant Professor, DHQ, Hospital, DI KHAN, KPK
  • Moeen ul Haq Assistant Professor, DHQ, Teaching GMC, DIKHAN, KPK
  • Umar Badshah Resident Cardiologist, SGTH, Swat, KPK


Causes, morbidity, mortality, upper gastrointestinal bleeding



Background: The most common, potentially fatal emergency that brings patients to the hospital is upper gastrointestinal bleeding/hemorrhage.

Objective: To assess the causes, morbidity, and mortality of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among hospitalized patients

Material and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out at the medical unit of DHQ hospital D I Khan. The duration of the study was six months from January 2023 to June 2023. Upper gastro intestinal endoscopies were carried out for all the enrolled patients by experienced endoscopists after initial all the patients were hemodynamically stabilized. All the data was collected by using a Proforma designed for this research. The Rockall score for each patient was then obtained using the whole multivariate analysis. SPSS 24.0 was used to analyze the collected data. 

Results: In the current research, totally 220 patients were selected. The male patients in our study were 143 (65%) while the female patients were 77 (35%). Based on endoscopy, the commonest cause of upper GI bleeding was esophageal varices in 132 (60%), followed by peptic ulcer in 33 (15%), gastritis in 22 (10%), esophagi is in 20 (9.09%). The overall mortality rate in our study was 13 (5.91%). A significant association was observed between Rockall score and mortality (p=0.001).

Conclusion: Our study concludes that variceal bleeding was the commonest cause of upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Peptic ulcer was the second most common cause of upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Our study also shows that Rockall score is a good predictor of outcome in upper GI bleeding patients.




How to Cite

-Rehman, . N.- ur, khan, S. ., Zubair, M. ., Haq, M. ul ., & Badshah, U. . (2024). Causes, Morbidity, and Mortality of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Among Hospitalized Patients. BMC Journal of Medical Sciences, 5(1), 56–60. Retrieved from



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