Correlation of Myopia with the use of Smart Phones and Outdoor Activities

Authors

  • Urwa Ghafoor FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY MEDICAL COLLEGE/ FAUJI FOUNDATION HSPITAL RAWALPINDI
  • Maham Fazal
  • Asfandyar Asghar
  • Sana Nadeem
  • Rana Intisar Ul Haq Department of Ophthalmology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Tariq Munawar Department of Ophthalmology, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, Pakistan

Keywords:

Smart phones, myopia

Abstract

Objective: To determine the correlation between smart phone usage and outdoor activities in the development of myopia.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi, from December 2021 to November 2022. A total of 200 eyes from 100 myopic patients of either gender between 4 – 16 years of age were included. Complete ophthalmic examination was carried out along with measurements of the height, weight, and axial length of each patient. Data was recorded on the time spent daily on smart phones and in outdoor activities, along with school grade, family history of myopia, dietary habits, indoor activity time, after-school study hours and sleep time. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 was used to analyse the data.

Results: The 100 patients included 65 males and 35 females with a mean age of 11.52 ± 7.43 years. Mean outdoor activity was 34.1 minutes per day while mean daily smart phone usage was 151.90 minutes per day. A positive significant linear correlation was established between daily smart phone usage and refractive error (r=0.386 p= 0.000) whilst a non-significant moderate inverse correlation between the time spent in outdoor activities and refractive error was found (r= -0.114 p=0.258)

Conclusion: The prevalence of myopia is increasing in modern times, owing in part to extensive screen time and near work. Time spent outdoors offers some degree of protective role in prevention of myopia.

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Published

2023-01-13

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Section

Original Articles