Comparison of Dry Eye Syndrome in North West Pakistani Diabetics and Non-Diabetics Population


  • Jahanzaib Khan Gajju Khan Medical College, Swabi
  • Zia Ur Rehman LRBT Akora Khattak
  • Mohammad Idris Ophthalmology Unit, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar
  • Naeem Khan Professional College of Medical Sciences
  • Muhammad Zubair Masood Gajju Khan Medical College, Swabi


dry eye syndromes, tear film, diabetes


Background: Due to rising life expectancy and anticipated older population expansion, the impact of dry eye syndrome (DES) will keep growing. Early investigations have indicated that the most frequent symptoms of diabetic retinopathy, or DR, are connected to problems with the ocular surface in general and dry eye in specific.

Objectives: To compare Dry Eye Syndrome in North West Pakistani Diabetics and Non-Diabetics.

Material and methods: this study is conducted on 50 cases and 50 controls at eye OPD from 5th October, 2018to 5th December 2018 by Convenience sampling technique. After that patient ocular and systemic history were taken and check previous clinical records if present. Anterior segment examination was carried out with a slit lamp. Fluorescein staining and schirmer test was carried out for diagnosing the dry eye syndrome. Patients were classified as having clinically dry eyes if their tear film was less than 10 mm, and as very dry if it was less than 5 mm. To assess the staining, fluorescein stain was utilized as a diagnostic dye. Dry eyes were regarded as having more than three fluorescein-stained cells. Chi-Square analysis, EPI Info 16, and SPSS were used to examine the data.

Results: In this research study, there were 50 cases of diabetes and 50 controls (control), were analyzed to look into the relationship between Dry Eye Syndrome with Diabetes mellitus. Dry Eye syndrome was present in 12 (24%) patients, 05 (33.3%) were males and 07 (66.6%) were females. Dry Eye Syndrome was present in 26(52%) patients, 12 (36.6%) were males and 14 (63.6%) were females. Odd ratio for case and control was calculated by applying Chi-Square test which was 7.90 at 95% of confidence level (Cl) with a P value of 0.004943  assuming a P value of <0.05 level of significance.

Conclusion: Dry eyes and diabetes seem to go together frequently. Type I diabetes is more likely to cause a milder degree of dry eye, but type 2 diabetes is more likely to cause mild to moderate dry eye.



How to Cite

Khan, J. ., Rehman, Z. U. ., Idris, M. ., Khan, N. ., & Masood, M. Z. . (2023). Comparison of Dry Eye Syndrome in North West Pakistani Diabetics and Non-Diabetics Population. BMC Journal of Medical Sciences, 4(2), 47–51. Retrieved from



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